Movement - a part of a larger work. One movement has a beginning, middle, and end, and SOUNDS complete in itself, but is part of a larger work. Like a chapter in a book.

Modulation - change of key. We heard this in the various entrances of the Ritornello in Vivaldi's Spring, as well as the Classical period at the Bridge of Sonata-Allegro form.

Cadenza - in a concerto, the part where the orchestra stops playing, and the soloist is featured
Use of Repetition, Variation, Contrast - try to follow these concepts while listening!!
Sonata Cycle Four movement FSDF plan common in symphonies, sonatas, and other works of the Classical period
Sonata - a multi movement work for solo instrument (with piano accompaniment)

Sonata-Allegro Form
Sonata form or Sonata Allegro Form - The form (formula) that you will find for the first movement of EVERY work from the Classical Period. Consists of three main parts: Exposition, Development, Recapitulation, and smaller Coda ('tail').
Here's some preliminary information to look over on Sonata Form:
Exposition - First section. Theme 1 in home key, transition modulates, Theme 2 in new key, closing section (book refers to a codetta - I prefer not to). The exposition is played twice.
Development - The second section. Themes 1 and 2 are fragmented and made into motives. Constant modulation with NO occurrence of the home key. Lots of tension, and even polyphonic texture. At the end of nearly every development, you can sense that it?s "running out of steam".
Recapitulation - The third section. You hear the home key coincide with Theme 1 again. Your ear remembers this sound from the very beginning. Structurally, the recapitulation is like the exposition, except that there is NOMODULATION IN THE RECAPITULATION. Theme 2 is in the home key.
Coda - "tail"; the very end of a movement. Nothing new, just a nice big cadence to signify that THIS IS THE END.

Concerto - Multi-movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra. Usually in 3 movements. Fast Slow Fast. Often features a cadenza. (br>Symphony - Multi-movement work for orchestra. Usually in 4 movements. Fast Slow Dancelike Fast. Does NOT feature a soloist.
Program music - music written to tell a story. The opposite of absolute music. There will be something else that the listener is supposed to follow or keep in mind when listening. Spring is a piece of Program Music.
Absolute music - music written for its own sake, not to tell a story. The opposite of program music. There is nothing else that the listener is supposed to follow or keep in mind when listening. Mozart's Symphony No. 40 is a piece of Absolute Music.

String Quartet - 2 violins, viola, violoncello (cello)

Sammartini: Symphony in F Major (the Ugly Duckling piece)

YouTube Video of Sammartini: Symphony in F Major
* AABABA form
* A starts in home key and ends in "wrong" key.
* B starts in "wrong" key and has to work its way back to home key. It's easier to get into the wrong key than it is to get back to the home key.
* Baroque characteristics: contains harpsichord and basso continuo; driving rhythm; based on dance form (Binary form of AABB)
* Classical characteristics: crescendo / decrescendo; more changes of melody and rhythm, homophonic texture, big "this is the end" type cadences; a preliminary example of Sonata Allegro Form...

Mozart Symphony No. 40
*Sonata Allegro Form. After the "Ugly Duckling" period is over, this is the mature product of where the Rococo period started.