Program vs. Absolute; Classic vs. Romantic

"En los Trigales" by J. Rodrigo
ABA form. The B section is much shorter, but slower than the A section. The A section is made up of many short phrases, with a lot of starts and stops. Some of the cadences are complete, and sound final, while others are incomplete, and lead to the next part. The B section is much shorter, with a "hint" of the main theme (motive) at several of the cadences.
"En los Trigales" is a Spanish piece meaning "In the Wheat Fields". Are there any aspects of this that might give you images of Spain, wheat fields, workers, etc.? This is called program music, when music contains an extra idea or story to think about when listening.
Program Music would be more likely to be a Romantic trait, rather than a Classic one. Classic composers are more interested in writing a good piece of music that stands on its own, follows form very well, balances itself, and does not ask the listener to get emotionally involved in the work.
Common Practice Period 1600-1900
Baroque (1600-1750) - birth of opera. Very dramatic period. Extreme contrasts. [romantic]

Movement - a part of a work, sounds complete in itself with a beginning middle and end. Think of it like a chapter in a book
Program music - music that has an extra-musical idea to go along with it. It might be a story, an idea, a picture, or a text.
Absolute music - music that has NO extra-musical idea to go along with it. It is music for its own sake, with the composer giving you NO hint as to what it might be depicting.
You may listen to any piece as if it is a work of absolute music (we did this in class the first time you heard "Spring", as I hadn't told you the birds and thunderstorm).
You may also create your own "program" to a work of absolute music if it helps you to follow along. Create a story for a piece of music, explain how the story changes as the music builds or fades, etc.
Program pieces are usually given a subtitle to hint that they are about something (Concerto in E major, Op. 8, No. 1, RV269, "Spring" from The Four Seasons)
Absolute pieces usually have no subtitles that might mean anything. Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67. This doesn't sound like it's about anything.

Vivaldi "Spring" Concerto
Theme - the tune in classical music.Not just repeated, but expanded and "developed". We heard the "minor" version of the theme in the first movement (right before the thunderstorm).
Drone - one repeated pitch among other changing pitches - more of a "folksy" quality. Used in the third movement of Spring.
Parts of a popular song:

Introduction - obviously, heard at the beginning of a song. May have elements of later sections to "foreshadow" melodies, harmonies, rhythms, etc. Typically will not have lyrics, but it may.
Verse - narrative part of a song. Sets the story, solo singer with accompaniment, occasional harmony. Usually 4-bar phrases, probably 4 or 8 phrases.
Pre-chorus - optional. After verse, the music can change significantly enough to be called a new section, but it's not as much an arrival as the chorus. Usually a build-up between verse and chorus. Not as long as the verse, probably only 4-8 bars.
Chorus - the "hook" of the song. Very memorable, uses harmonies, repetition, possibly the title of the song resides here. 4-bar phrases in 4 lines is common, either 2 lines repeated, or 4 lines that each start the same.
Bridge - sometimes after the first verse and chorus combination, usually after the second verse/chorus combination. A new section (contrast) that will require a new section name (if verse is A and chorus is B, bridge will be C). Not as tuneful or memorable as chorus or verse. Usually leads back into another chorus or a solo section, etc.
Interlude - an (usually) instrumental part that is placed between a verse and a chorus, or between a chorus and the next verse. Nay use the same musical elements as the intro, verse, and/or chorus, and is designed to give a break between the action of a verse/chorus combination that doesn't have much space in them.

The same chord progression can be used to write many songs.
Axis of Awesome 4-chord song(s) - this video has the song titles as they go by.
 Theme - the tune in classical music.Not just repeated, but expanded and "developed"
 A motive is a part of a phrase.  A complete phrase combines with other complete phrases to form a section. 
 The Form of a composition is discussed in sections, not phrases or themes.

Thriller by Michael Jackson
Thriller (Studio version)
Starts with an introduction, Verse 1 is A for 2 lines, next 2 lines are called B. Chorus is called C. Interlude between chorus and verse 2. New section (Bridge) called D after second chorus. New melody that returns to chorus. In the official video, the D section is left out.
Ending has polyphonic texture as MJ and Vincent Price have lines that overlap.

Bourree by J.S. Bach
AABB Binary form. The B section is much longer than the A section. The A section is 8-bars, made up of 2 4-bar phrases. The B section is much longer, but still laid out in groups of 4 bars.

The same chord progression can be used to write many songs.

In jazz, the tune is called the "head".
A jazz solo will have 2 things retained from the head: the harmonies / chord progression, and the number of bars per section. Pitch and duration.
Take the A Train - Duke Ellington (instrumental)
Take the A Train - Ella Fitzgerald (vocal)

 Listening examples from class:
Ain't Nobody Got Time For That Form is AAABACAA. Some of the A sections are a cappella, others have the bass drum or hand claps playing the beat. Many things throughout that use repetition, variation, contrast to create interest in a short song.
Axis of Awesome 4-chord song(s) - this video has the song titles as they go by.
Thriller (Studio version)